Police officers have the authority to protect victims, to legally apprehend or take away offenders, and to provoke the investigation of against the law. In order to seek out justice, every victim of interpersonal violence should cope with the police and required authorized procedures. However, battered women, particularly immigrant battered women, may be re-victimized by police officers. The majority of respondents in 2009 examine claimed that battered women in Greece typically couldn’t rely on police safety. Since the Greek society views domestic violence as a non-public matter, cops are not skilled to reply appropriately and sufficiently, and sometimes reinforce the general patriarchal view of girls position in household and the society as whole. The first research carried out from September to November 2009 in Athens, Greece sought to discover whether or not gender performs a task in obtaining legal status by way of totally different migration policies similar to regularization and family reunion.
First, a number of transient background sections provide an outline of Albanian migration in Greece, especially specializing in the migration of Albanian women and the gender roles that structure household life in Albania. The literature evaluate also highlights the impact that the worldwide financial disaster has had on Greece’s labor market, and the problem of domestic violence in immigrant communities. Then the methodology of the 2 fieldwork research in Athens, Greece is presented. The two studies, conducted in 2009 and 2013, were not explicitly involved with Albanian immigrant women. However, given the focus of Albanian migrants in Athens and the magnitude of the interpersonal violence problem in immigrant communities, the interviews yielded a lot information on the topic.
Violence Against Women
The examine discovered proof of a rise in IPV in the aftermath of the economic disaster, which could possibly be defined by the ideology of familial patriarchy. Battered immigrant women also face challenges in the Greek criminal justice system, which can also be influenced by patriarchal values, when they’re looking for aid and help in circumstances of interpersonal violence. The interview transcripts from each studies were analyzed by the authors based mostly on inductive coding. At the start of the coding course of, each query in the interview schedule was identified with open-coding strategies. Particular consideration was given to broad classes such as battered immigrant women, gender roles, immigrants and the job market, financial disaster and gender equality.
A number of research on gender roles have emerged within the migration literature. Overall, these research focus on how societies assemble and reinforce roles for female and male immigrants and the way immigrant women reconcile the differences in their roles between the origin society and host country. For occasion, Baluja’s research found that the gender roles of Bangladeshi immigrants change significantly after migration . Immigrant households, on the one hand, stress conventional gender expectations corresponding to feminine childcare suppliers and male as family breadwinners. However, on the other hand, these female immigrants train more freedom of movement with out males than do their counterparts in Bangladesh. Thus, in the receiving country, immigrant women can probably alleviate a number of the burdens related to their own tradition’s traditional gender roles.
The paper concludes with a dialogue of the findings and their implications. Scholars argue that undocumented or legally dependent female immigrants expertise IPV in several ways from that of residents and at a lot larger rates than within the general populations . Similar to other battered women, female immigrants concern their batterers, but their anxiety is exacerbated by their legal and political vulnerability . For instance, some undocumented immigrant women are legally dependent on an abusive spouse for entry to social and well being companies.
Ultimately, women comprised about forty% of all Albanian immigrants . Vullnetari argues that it would be too simplistic to elucidate feminine Albanian migration solely by way of the lens of household reunion. The findings of this research confirmed that intimate companion violence in opposition to Albanian immigrant women remains a serious concern in Greece. Furthermore, there is indication that the Greek financial disaster might need led to a rise in household violence, a backlash to the growing emancipation of immigrant women. However, this discovering needs to be interpreted with caution because it was revealed by Greek prosecutors and shelter suppliers and not by Albanian immigrant women themselves. Nevertheless, scholars of IPV have lengthy insisted that this type of violence should not be studied solely at the degree of individual behavior, but rather should be approached from a political-economic perspective . Shelter providers, social workers, attorneys and prosecutors—workers at the frontlines of gender-based mostly violence—are well geared up to show how “tradition and structural inequalities form the ways that gender-based mostly violence is outlined and approached” (, p. 8).
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Therefore, more specific themes emerged within broad thematic categories. For instance, the theme of “patriarchy” included coding for the dominance of a father/husband over a household, sanctity of the family institution in Greek society, and comments on women occupying lower social status than men. In addition, a second reader (the researcher’s Greek colleague) independently analyzed the transcripts in order to establish the patterns and themes inside the transcripts. Following grounded theory methods , three themes emerged from the info.
Patriarchy at the social stage becomes the second barrier for those Albanian immigrant women who have found the braveness to report their abuse. In Greece, IPV is not a public problem, it is an issue to be addressed inside the family context to preserve the household as a social unit. Because access to legal remedies for immigrant battered women depends upon people within the legal system, including law enforcement officials and prosecutors, these women are susceptible to the private prejudices of individuals. The research uncovered that cops and prosecutors are influenced in their albanian mail order bride interaction with immigrant battered women by their private attitudes, potential biases and broader patriarchal norms. Some of them are gender biased and this might be particularly dangerous when they are referred to as to home violence incidents. When the patriarchal challenges that Greek women confront of their households and society are mixed with a single Greek identity, immigrant battered women are even more susceptible to violence and abuse. This vulnerability is subsequently experienced at a number of ranges, not solely in their intimate household relationships, however in broader Greek society as well.
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However, immigrant women who are abused face multiple barriers to looking for legal safety from the abuse because of their migration status, their positions inside household and the host nation. This paper examines the problems related to intimate companion violence within the Albanian immigrant group in Greece. It explores how the state of affairs in Greek society and the labor market changed the traditional gender roles and distribution of the facility inside Albanian families and elevated intimate partner violence .
One might doubt whether simultaneously working a number of tough jobs with meager pay might be interpreted as a pathway to a rise in autonomy and empowerment. It is also a supply of stress for men, particularly during times of unemployment” (, p. 129). Existing research agrees that the nature and patterns of Albanian migration have modified within the 21st century . The proportion of illegal immigration has decreased and adjusted to family migration as a substitute of a male-led phenomenon . As male immigrants settled in Greece and obtained legal status, they were in a position to convey their families over by way of the newly created household reunion insurance policies. According to knowledge from the Ministry of Interior, the number of residence permits for spouses of Albanian legal residents increased from forty five,758 in 2004 to sixty nine,266 in 2008.
Namely, the research uncovered how the migration status of immigrant women affected their alternatives for seeking aid from IPV. In addition, the research centered on the ways that the authorized system can be mobilized for serving to immigrant battered women and supply help and safety. Migrant women’s vulnerability to IPV can be seen by way of the lens of gender and constructed gender roles that exist within the host nation and country of origin.
Edith Durham famous in 1928 that Albanian village women had been more conservative in maintaining traditions, corresponding to revenge calling, much like women in ancient Greece. According to a column in The Literary World in 1878, Albanian women were allowed to carry arms.
Themes that emerged from the info have been counted as themes if a minimum of half of the informants inside respective groups (social workers or legal professionals/prosecutors) raised the issue. Scholars have differentiated between familial patriarchy—male dominance in home settings, and social patriarchy—male control on the societal level . As the examine revealed, for Albanian immigrant women each types of patriarchy remain a problem. At the familial stage, their victimization is culturally decided since Albanian tradition dictates conventional differentiated gender roles with explicit or tacit approval of household violence. However, analysis has commented on how migration process has the potential to confront and remodel gendered relations by altering “status and energy inside or outside the household” . This is what happened in some immigrant households the place transferring to another country contributed to the growth of girls’s expectations, elevation of their status and enlargement of their decisions.
Immigration is becoming an increasingly necessary coverage concern in Europe and in lots of different nations. Importantly, there is an ever-rising number of women who migrate, many of whom are undocumented. Violence in opposition to immigrant women is nearly inconceivable to estimate.